Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Environmental assessment is a procedure that ensures that environmental implications of decisions are taken into account before the decisions are made. Environmental assessment can be undertaken for individual projects, such as dams, airports and energy plants (known as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) or for public plans or programmes (known as Strategic Environmental Assessment).
EIA is a tool used to ensure that projects that are likely to generate significant effects on the environment have been subjected to an environmental assessment prior to their approval or authorization.
Although legislation and practice vary around the world, the fundamental components of EIA involve: Screening (to determine which projects require full or partial impact assessment study), Scoping (What should be covered?), EIA Report (Project description, alternatives, environmental inventory, identification and assessment of environmental impacts, mitigation and compensation measures), Public consultation and Environmental Audit to assess EIA process after completion of the project.